Sanskrit literature can be classified under six orthodox heads and four secular heads. The six orthodox sections form the authoritative scriptures of the Hindus.
The Hellenistic Age was a time of transition, and the Stoic philosopher was perhaps its most influential representative.
A new culture was in the making. The heritage of an earlier period, with Athens as its intellectual leader, was to continue, but to undergo many changes.
If, as with Socratesto know is to know oneself, rationality as the sole means by which something outside of the self might be achieved may be said to be the hallmark of Stoic belief.
As a Hellenistic philosophy, Stoicism presented an ars vitae, a way of accommodation for people to whom the human condition no longer appeared as the mirror of a uniform, calm, and ordered cosmos. Reason alone could reveal the constancy of cosmic order and the originative source of unyielding value; thus, reason became the true model for human existence.
To the Stoic, virtue is an inherent feature of the world, no less inexorable in relation to humans than are the laws of nature.
The Stoics believed that perception is the basis of true knowledge.
In logictheir comprehensive presentation of the topic is derived from perception, yielding not only the judgment that knowledge is possible but also that certainty is possible, on the analogy of the incorrigibility of perceptual experience. To them, the world is composed of material things, with some few exceptions e.
Things, such as material, or corporeal, bodies, are governed by this reason or fatein which virtue is inherent. The world in its awesome entirety is so ruled as to exhibit a grandeur of orderly arrangement that can only serve as a standard for humankind in the regulation and ordering of life.
Thus, the goal of humans is to live according to nature, in agreement with the world design. Stoic moral theory is also based on the view that the world, as one great city, is a unity. Humans, as world citizens, have an obligation and loyalty to all things in that city.
They must play an active role in world affairs, remembering that the world exemplifies virtue and right action.
Thus, moral worth, duty, and justice are singularly Stoic emphases, together with a certain sternness of mind. For the moral person neither is merciful nor shows pity, because each suggests a deviation from duty and from the fated necessity that rules the world. Its chief competitors in antiquity were: Along with its rivals, Stoicism enabled the individual to better order his own life and to avoid the excesses of human nature that promote disquietude and anxiety.
It was easily the most influential of the schools from the time of its founding through the first two centuries ce, and it continued to have a marked effect on later thought. During the late Roman and medieval periods, elements of Stoic moral theory were known and used in the formulation of Christian, Jewishand Islamic theories of humanity and nature, of the state and society, and of law and sanctions—e.
In the RenaissanceStoic political and moral theory became more popular to theorists of natural law and political authority and of educational reform—e. In the 20th century, Stoicism became popular again for its insistence on the value of the individual and the place of value in a world of strife and uncertainty—e.
Stoicism also played an important role in reassessments of the history of logic. Ancient Stoicism Early Greek Stoicism With the death of Aristotle bce and that of Alexander the Great bcethe greatness of the life and thought of the Greek city-state polis ended.
With Athens no longer the centre of worldly attraction, its claim to urbanity and cultural prominence passed on to other cities—to Rometo Alexandriaand to Pergamum.
The Greek polis gave way to larger political units; local rule was replaced by that of distant governors. The earlier distinction between Greek and barbarian was destroyed; provincial and tribal loyalties were broken apart, first by Alexander and then by Roman legions.
The loss of freedom by subject peoples further encouraged a deterioration of the concept of the freeman and resulted in the rendering of obligation and service to a ruler whose moral force held little meaning.
The earlier intimacy of order, cosmic and civic, was now replaced by social and political disorder, and traditional mores gave way to uncertain and transient values. Stoicism had its beginnings in a changing world, in which earlier codes of conduct and ways of understanding proved no longer suitable.
But it was also influenced by tenets of the older schools. The earliest Greek philosophers, the Milesianshad called attention to cosmic order and the beauty of nature.
Later, the monist Parmenides of Elea stressed the power of reason and thought, whereas Heracleitus of Ephesusprecursor of the philosophy of becoming, had alluded to the constancy of change and the omnipresence of divine fire, which illumined all things. A deeper understanding of human nature came with Socratessymbol of the philosopher, who personified sophia and sapientia Greek and Latin: Of the several schools of philosophy stemming from Socrates, the Cynic and Megarian schools were influential in the early development of Stoic doctrine: Stoicism takes its name from the place where its founder, Zeno of Citium Cypruscustomarily lectured—the Stoa Poikile Painted Colonnade.The distinction reveals Durkheim's thinking about how modern societies differ from earlier ones, and consequently, how solidarity changes as a society becomes more complex.
1 Societies of mechanical solidarity tend to be relatively small and organized around kinship affiliations. Societies with mechanical solidarity tend to be small with a high degree of religious commitment, and people in a mechanical society oftentimes have the same jobs and responsibilities, thus indicating a .
Solidarity is about valuing our fellow human beings and respecting who they are as individuals. “The many situations of inequality, poverty and injustice, are signs not only of a profound lack of fraternity, but also of the absence of a culture of solidarity.
A page in the Encyclopedia of Marxism. Reactionary A political position that maintains a conservative response to change, including threats .
Introduction By extolling freedom of religion in the schools, President Bill Clinton has raised the level of debate on the importance of religion to American life. The time is ripe for a. Defining Religion.
In order to describe and explain the most primitive religion known to man, Durkheim observed, we must first define the term "religion" itself: otherwise we risk drawing inferences from beliefs and practices which have nothing "religious" about them, or (and this was the greater danger to Durkheim) of leaving many religious facts to one .