This report provides a detailed look at police technology. It is meant to help readers as they consider the evolution and future development of police technology and the role of the National Institute of Justice NIJ in fostering that development. It was prepared with a diverse audience in mind, all of whom have a stake in ensuring that the police are equipped to do their job safely and efficiently: The job is exacting.
Feasting rituals and the cooperation they require are a crucial step toward human civilization July 3, by Charles Stanish, The Conversation Coming together for a solstice feast in ancient Peru.
Robert Gutierrez, Author provided "The Epic of Gilgamesh" is one of the earliest texts known in the world. Within its lines, the epic hints at how the ancients viewed the origins of their civilization.
Both bread and wine are products of settled society. They represent the power to control nature and create civilization, converting the wild into the tamed, the raw into the cooked — and their transformation cannot be easily done alone.
The very act of transforming the wild into the civilized is a social one, requiring many people to work together. Over the past few decades, archaeological theory has shifted toward the idea that civilization arose in different regions around the world thanks to the evolution of cooperation.
Archaeologists have discovered that the consumption of food and drink in ritually prescribed times and places— known technically as feasting —is one of the cornerstones of heightened sociality and cooperation throughout human history.
My own research in Peru bears this out. Geoglyphs that modified the landscape are still visible, delineating a path to where the sun sets on the summer solstice. Charles Stanish, CC BY-ND Signs of cooperation in Peru How does complex society originate out of the hunter-gatherer bands and small settled villages that dominated the globe well into the early Holocene around 9, years ago?
And once such social organizations develop, what kinds of mechanisms sustain these new societies sufficiently to develop into the Uruks of the ancient world?
Thanks to work by previous archaeologists and our own new datawe have been able to piece together a comprehensive prehistory of the valley beginning several millennia ago.
One significant time period is known as Paracas; it lasted from roughly to B. This is the time when the first complex societies developed in the region, the origin of civilization in this part of the ancient world.
We documented a massive Paracas presence in the valley, ranging from large pyramid structures to modest villages scattered over the landscape. Across the hyper-arid pampa lands above the valley, the Paracas peoples built linear geoglyphs: We found five sets of lines that all concentrated on the five major Paracas sites at the edge of the pampa.
We also found many small structures built between the lines. Excavation of a structure in the Chincha pampa with the walls aligned to the June solstice.
Previous work by our team and others throughout Peru unequivocally indicates that the pre-Columbian peoples of the Andes used the solstices to mark important events.
We concluded that these sites were the endpoints of ritually significant social events that were timed by the solstices and possibly other astronomical phenomena. Feasting at Paracas We chose to intensively study one endpoint site, called Cerro del Gentil, to assess its significance in Paracas culture.
The site is a large platform mound with three levels. The base level measures 50 by meters at its maximum. Each level contains a sunken patio measuring around 12 meters on a side.
There was evidence of food preparation as well, though we did not find a resident population. We found large numbers of pottery serving vessels and evidence of termination rituals involving liquid libations poured into the patio at the conclusion of some elaborate feasts.
A woven cloth bag stuffed with human hair. No one seemed to live at this well-built location year-round, though there was plenty of evidence that from time to time many people were present to eat, drink and even make human sacrifices together, probably at particular special times of the astronomical calendar.A copy of the National Institute for Justice commissioned exploration of police, law enforcement and public safety technology.
To arrive at the edge of the world's knowledge, seek out the most complex and sophisticated minds, put them in a room together, and have them ask each other the questions they are asking themselves.
A food web (or food cycle) is a natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation (usually an image) of what-eats-what in an ecological leslutinsduphoenix.comr name for food web is consumer-resource leslutinsduphoenix.comists can broadly lump all life forms into one of two categories called trophic levels: 1) the autotrophs, and 2) the heterotrophs.
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By "augmenting human intellect" we mean increasing the capability of a man to approach a complex problem situation, to gain comprehension to suit his particular needs, and to derive solutions to problems.