Chinese Legalism According to scholarly consensus, the earliest example of an administrative meritocracy, based on civil service examinations, dates back to Ancient China. This sets in motion the creation of the imperial examinations and bureaucracies open only to those who passed tests.
Quotas take situations that are fair — tough, sure, but fair nonetheless — and make them unfair. Those are the attitudes I bump into when I talk about quotas — the most extreme form of intervention in hiring processes.
Those attitudes, however, fly in the face of recent research.
The sociology of education is the study of how public institutions and individual experiences affect education and its outcomes. It is mostly concerned with the public schooling systems of modern industrial societies, including the expansion of higher, further, adult, and continuing education. Page Last Edited. 18/08/ Functionalism, Marxism, Socialisation and the Schools: An Assignment; See also The Functions of Formal Education Systems: Marxist Perspective and I hope to add a similar document on the Functionalist perspective soon! The socialisation process which has begun in the family continues in the education system and the following exercise centres on important. Asses the functionalist role of education in society The role of education is to educate individuals within society and to prepare them for working life in the economy, also to integrate individuals and teach them the norms, values and roles within society.
It turns out that there are good reasons to think quotas actually do the opposite: The impediments to fair and quality-based hiring processes are many.
An increasing literature shows that we have implicit biases which keep us from making objective evaluations of the work done by men and women; we inevitably consider sex when we evaluate individuals. Academics hold tightly to the view that progress in our system is meritocratic.
Hiring, decisions about article publication, citation of the work of our peers, the awarding of research funds, raises, promotions and more are determined rationally, we believe, as a result of the objective evaluation of clearly stated requirements for advancement.
Earlier simulation studies could not distinguish between the behavior of men and women; the new paper is a study of actual data gathered after the fact and as such is messier with more variables that cannot be controlled for.
Its results are an invitation to more research: The absence of a difference between men and women when it comes to implicit bias is clearly a topic that we are not yet done studying. Independent of that, what is clear from any of these studies is our commitment to quality: We intensely want to believe that we are capable of recognizing quality when we see it.
In many situations, we are simply not up to the task. We need processes that support our quest for selecting the best. This is part of a conceptualization of human capital and many such processes are available to us.
How quotas raise quality Quotas can take the form of insisting that a particular position go to a member of an under-represented group, or that a particular percentage of a group must be made up of members of particular sub-groups.
One common objection to quotas is that they are unfair. But quotas do not get introduced in situations that already are fair. But research suggests that this is exactly wrong. Research shows us that quotas can raise quality.
Everyone who is a friend of gender balance work needs to learn these arguments. In fact, they are anecdotes that with sufficient repetition start to get treated as data. Anecdata are not useful as we try to build our knowledge.
Three studies on quotas show something different. In fact, the inclusion of some affirmative action measure in the announcement of conditions had the effect of attracting more highly qualified women to the extent that it was almost never necessary to actually use the affirmative action measure to get the desired gender balance.
Theory and evidence from Sweden. This paper examines the effects of quotas on the lists of political parties.
The authors evaluate group competency and demonstrate that the zipper quota raises the overall competency of the groups and, in particular, it raises the competency of the group of men on the list. Adding a zipper quota raises the competency of the group overall and of the group of men. What does that mean?
It means that mediocre men are being replaced by more highly qualified women. The overall compentency is raised because more highly qualified people replace lower qualified people. And for the group of men, lower qualified men are no longer present. This is a realization of the classic argument that we need to make use of all of societies resources.
And it shows that exactly the opposite of the stereotype about quotas is what actually happens. We study the impact of gender quotas on the acquisition of human capital. The lure of top positions induces even men of relatively low ability to engage in human capital formation, whereas women of relatively high ability do not expect to get top positions and do not therefore engage in human capital formation.
Gender quotas discourage men who are less efficient in forming human capital, and encourage women who are more efficient in forming human capital.democratic and meritocratic practices will be explored in terms of broad historical and and virtue to replace other systems of inequality based upon feudalist birthright, divine right, Meritocracy and the Uses of Education Aundra Saa Meroe “ Education.
Democracy. Education. The meritocratic view of the education system means that the system is fair and supports all however, other sociologists discard this view as legitimising a system of inequality where some people dues to wealth/class do better than others.
(6) (b) Evaluate the claim that in modern industrial societies state education systems act as a means of social control.
2. (a) (i) Define the term gender stereotyping. Academics hold tightly to the view that progress in our system is meritocratic. Hiring, decisions about article publication, citation of the work of our peers, the awarding of research funds, raises, promotions and more are determined rationally, we believe, as a result of the objective evaluation of clearly stated requirements for advancement.
Page Last Edited. 18/08/ Functionalism, Marxism, Socialisation and the Schools: An Assignment; See also The Functions of Formal Education Systems: Marxist Perspective and I hope to add a similar document on the Functionalist perspective soon!
The socialisation process which has begun in the family continues in the education system and the following exercise centres on important. (b) Evaluate the view that the family in modern industrial societies has lost some of its functions. (16) (a) Describe, with examples, how the structure of the family has been affected by industrialization.