In the mids, Imogene King wrote of the need for focus, organization, and use of a nursing knowledge base King, She proposed that knowledge for nursing resulted from the systematic use and validation of knowledge about concepts relevant to nursing situations.
In order to do that, it is necessary to set health goals with the patient, and then take steps to achieve those goals. In hospital settings, as nurses, we have proved that when the nurse and client communicate and work together toward mutually selected goals, the goals are more likely to be attained.
She developed a general systems framework and a theory of goal attainment where the framework refers to the three interacting systems - individual or personal, group or interpersonal, and society or social, while the theory of goal attainment pertains to the importance of interaction, perception, communication, transaction, self, role, stress, growth and development, time, and personal space.
King emphasizes that both the nurse and the client bring important knowledge and information to the relationship and that they work together to achieve goals. Each system is given different concepts. The concepts for the personal system are: These are fundamentals in understanding human being because this refers to how the nurse views and integrates self based from personal goals and beliefs.
Among all these concepts, the most important is perception, because it influences behavior. Personal systems are individuals, who are regarded as rational, sentient, social beings.
Concepts related to the personal system are: Perception— a process of organizing, interpreting, and transforming information from sense data and memory that gives meaning to one's experience, represents one's image of reality, and influences one's behavior.
Self— a composite of thoughts and feelings that constitute a person's awareness of individual existence, of who and what he or she is.
Growth and development— cellular, molecular, and behavioral changes in human beings that are a function of genetic endowment, meaningful and satisfying experiences, and an environment conducive to helping individuals move toward maturity.
Body image—a person's perceptions of his or her body. Time—the duration between the occurrence of one event and the occurrence of another event. Space—the physical area called territory that exists in all directions. The concepts associated for the interpersonal system are: King refers to two individuals as dyads, three as triads and four or more individuals as small group or large group King, This shows how the nurse interrelates with a co-worker or patient, particularly in a nurse-patient relationship.
Communication between the nurse and the client can be verbal or nonverbal. Collaboration between the Dyads nurse-patient is very important for the attainment of the goal. The concepts associated with this system are: Interactions—the acts of two or more persons in mutual presence; a sequence of verbal and nonverbal behaviors that are goal directed.
Communication—the vehicle by which human relations are developed and maintained; encompasses intrapersonal, interpersonal, verbal, and nonverbal communication. Transaction—a process of interaction in which human beings communicate with the environment to achieve goals that are valued; goal-directed human behaviors.
Role—a set of behaviors expected of a person occupying a position in a social system. Stress—a dynamic state whereby a human being interacts with the environment to maintain balance for growth, development, and performance, involving an exchange of energy and information between the person and the environment for regulation and control of stressors.
Coping—a way of dealing with stress. The final interacting system is the social system. This shows how the nurse interacts with co workers, superiors, subordinates and the client environment in general. These are groups of people within the community or society that share a common goals, values and interests.
It provides a framework for social interaction and relationships and establishes rules of behavior and courses of action King, Social systems are organized boundary systems of social roles, behaviors, and practices developed to maintain values and the mechanisms to regulate the practices and roles.Imogene King: Dr.
Imogene King was one of the leading nursing theorists of the 20th century. Her systems theory and corresponding goal attainment theory have been used in almost all nursing texts and form the framework for many nursing programs.
CHAPTER 2: Nursing Theories and the Practice of Nursing.
Chapter 2 Nursing Theories and the Practice of Nursing. The nursing practice must be based on nursing theories.
Imogene King’s concepts focus on these methods to help nurses in the nurse-patient relationship. King used a “systems” approach in the development of her dynamic interacting systems framework and in her subsequent Goal-Attainment Theory. She developed a general systems framework and a theory of goal attainment where the framework refers to the three interacting systems - individual or.
King has interrelated the concepts of interaction, perception, communication, transaction, self, role, stress, growth and development, time, and . CHAPTER 15 Conceptual System and Middle Range Theory of Goal Attainment Christina L.
Sieloff and Patricia R. Messmer “Theory is an abstraction that implies prediction based in research. Theory without research and research without some theoretical basis will not build scientific knowledge for a discipline” (King, , p.
23). Imogene M.
King, EdD, RN, FAAN. Chapter 9 King’s Conceptual System and Theory of Goal Attainment in Nursing Practice Mary Gunther Nurses are the key persons in the health care system who identify the goals and the means to help individuals and families attain goals. (King, b, p. 24).
The author and editor wish to thank Maureen A. Frey who authored.