Mahavira Jainism and Buddhism were both originally orders of monks outside of Brahmanism. Jainism is at least as old as Buddhism; the oldest Buddhist works mention the Jains as a rival sect, under their old name, Nigantha, and their leader Nataputta Varddhamana. Rsabha, Ajitanatha and Aristanemi. His predecessor, Parsva, the second-to-last Tirthankara, is said to have died years before Mahavira.
Among the ontological problems—problems concerning existence and existential assumptions—arising in logic are those of individuation and existence.
History and scope Wolff contrasted ontologyor general metaphysicswhich applied to all things, with special metaphysical theories such as those of the soulof bodies, or of God. Wolff claimed that ontology was an a priori discipline that could reveal the essences of things, a view strongly criticized later in the 18th century by David Hume and Immanuel Kant.
After renewed criticism and eclipse under the antimetaphysical movement known as logical positivismontology was revived in the midth century by the American philosopher W.
In a typical ontological dispute, one group of philosophers affirms the existence of some category of object realistswhile another group denies that there are such things antirealists.
Such categories have included abstract or ideal Formsuniversalsimmaterial minds, a mind-independent world, Jainism metaphysics but not actual objects, essences, free willand God. Much of the history of philosophy is in fact a history of ontological disputes.
Once they have been brought into the open, ontological disputes tend to concentrate on questions of several recurrent kinds.
If the question is answered affirmatively, there are subsequent questions. Do Xs exist independently of minds and languages objectivelyor do they depend on them in some way subjectively or intersubjectively? Are they discovered or created? Are they basic, irreducible constituents of reality, or can they be reduced to others?
For example, in the millennia-long dispute about universals, realists have affirmed mind-independent universals, whether existing apart or only in things; conceptualists have taken universals to be mental or mind-created entities; moderate nominalists such as Thomas Hobbes — have taken them to be words or linguistic entities; and extreme nominalists have denied that there are any universals at all.
Among modern Platonists, some take universals to be basic or sui generis, while others take them to be reducible to sets.
In general, a philosopher who believes in many fundamentally different kinds of object has a rich ontology, and one who believes in only a few kinds of object has a sparse ontology.
Rich ontologists include Platowho recognized immaterial Forms as well as material bodies, and the Austrian philosopher Alexius Meinong —who embraced merely possible and even impossible objects alongside actual objects.
Sparse ontologists include William of Ockham c. The most common method since the 20th century, the logical or linguistic method, relied upon theories of meaning or reference—as applied to either artificial logical languages or to natural languages—to dictate the kinds of entity that exist.
Typically, lists of basic categories reflecting this method tended to correspond closely to broad linguistic or syntactic categories—e. A shortcoming of the logico-linguistic method, however, is that it is generally possible to change the ontology it produces by varying the semantic analysis of the natural or formal language in question.
Other ontological methods have been based on phenomenology Husserl, Meinongon the analysis of human existence, or Dasein Martin Heideggerand on epistemology.
Husserl and Meinong contended that the basic categories of objects mirror the various kinds of mental activity by which they are grasped. Thus, there must be four basic kinds of objects corresponding to the mental activities of ideation, judgment, feeling, and desire.
Heidegger held that it is a mistake to base the ontology of human existence on Aristotelian concepts such as matter and form, which are suitable only for artifacts.
Quine rejected any primacy for ontology, claiming that ontological categories should be suggested by natural science. Yet this did not prevent him from sometimes intervening on an apparently ad hoc basis to reduce the ontological commitments of classes of scientific theories to those of his minimal ontology of things and sets.
In contrast to Quine, philosophers such as Alfred North Whitehead — in England and David Armstrong in Australia regarded ontology as a core philosophical discipline that cannot depend to such a decisive extent on any other philosophical or scientific study.
Its results can be evaluated only in terms of the adequacy of the overall system in the light of experience.Lama Govinda: Discussion of the Metaphysics / Philosophy of Buddhist Lama Anagarika Govinda, Tantric Tibetan Buddhism Religion - All is One (Akasa, Space) and Dynamic (Prana, Motion) - Pictures Quotes Quotations Lama Anagarika Govinda.
Jainism (/ ˈ dʒ eɪ n ɪ z əm /), traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Followers of Jainism are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina (victor) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life Jains trace their history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviours.
Fideisms Judaism is the Semitic monotheistic fideist religion based on the Old Testament's ( BCE) rules for the worship of Yahweh by his chosen people, the children of Abraham's son Isaac (c BCE).. Zoroastrianism is the Persian monotheistic fideist religion founded by Zarathustra (cc BCE) and which teaches that good must be chosen over evil in order to achieve salvation.
Jainism (/ ˈ dʒ eɪ n ɪ z əm /), traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion. Followers of Jainism are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina (victory) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life.
Jains trace their history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviours. Jainism (pronounced jayn-izm), traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is a dharmic religion with its origins in the prehistory of India, still practiced today by several million leslutinsduphoenix.comm has as its religious ideal the perfection of man’s nature.
The universe is seen as being eternal—having no beginning and no end—precluding God from being a creator. Ontology: Ontology, the philosophical study of being in general, or of what applies neutrally to everything that is real.
It was called “first philosophy” by Aristotle in Book IV of his Metaphysics. The Latin term ontologia (“science of being”) was felicitously invented by the German philosopher Jacob.