The country became increasingly urban, and cities grew not only in terms of population but also in size, with skyscrapers pushing cities upward and new transportation systems extending them outward. Part of the urban population growth was fueled by an unprecedented mass immigration to the United States that continued unabated into the first two decades of the twentieth century. Meanwhile, ongoing industrialization and urbanization left their mark on how people spent their daily lives and used their leisure time. Inthere were only two American cities with a population of more than ,; bythere were six, and three of these — New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia — boasted over one million inhabitants.
During this period, urbanization spread out into the countryside and up into the sky, thanks to new methods of building taller buildings. Having people concentrated into small areas accelerated economic activity, thereby producing more industrial growth.
Industrialization and urbanization thus reinforced one another, augmenting the speed with which such growth would have otherwise occurred. Industrialization and urbanization affected Americans everywhere, but especially in the Northeast and Midwest.
Technological developments in construction, transportation, and illumination, all connected to industrialization, changed cities forever, most immediately those north of Washington, DC and east of Kansas City.
Cities themselves fostered new kinds of industrial activity on large and small scales. Cities were also the places where businessmen raised the capital needed to industrialize the rest of the United States. Later changes in production and transportation made urbanization less acute by making it possible for people to buy cars and live further away from downtown areas in new suburban areas after World War II ended.
Beforeindustrialization depended upon a prescribed division of labor—breaking most jobs up into smaller tasks, and assigning the same people to repeat one task indefinitely. Afterindustrialization depended much more on mechanization—the replacement of people with machines—to increase production and maximize profits.
The development of the modern electrical grid, starting in the early s, facilitated such technological advances. As a result, the total manufacturing output of the United States was twenty-eight times greater in than it was Adjust that number for the growth in population over the same period, and it still multiplied seven times over.
This trend was most apparent in large cities like New York, which expanded from approximately half a million to around 3. During the last half of the late 19th century, Chicago proved to be the fastest growing city in the world.
Bythat percentage had increased to The Census revealed that more Americans lived in cities than the countryside for the first time. Important regional differences existed in urbanization because of differences in the nature of industrial growth.
Following on a tradition of manufacturing from earlier in the century, New Bedford and Fall River, Massachusetts increased in size because of their cotton textile factories.
Other cities, like Elizabeth, New Jersey, grew as byproducts of the expansion of their larger neighbors. Chicago, the largest city in the Midwest, made its name processing natural resources from the Western frontier before those resources traveled eastward as finished products.
That activity would disperse again, after the turn of the 20th century, to other cities like Fort Worth and Kansas City. As a result, many advocates for outside investment in this region expanded their activities after the war.
They were somewhat successful. While the rate of industrialization and therefore urbanization picked up in the South during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it still has not fully caught up with the rest of the country.
After the turn of the 20th century, this region became an important center of activity for the textile industry, in large part because of the cheap, nonunion labor available there. What separates this period from earlier periods in urban and industrial history is that this was the first time in American history that cities had moved to the center of American life.Start studying The growth of Cities and American Culture, Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. This trend was most apparent in large cities like New York, which expanded from approximately half a million to around million people between and , and Philadelphia, which increased in size from slightly more than , inhabitants to more than million people over the same period.
Commerce Tacoma, Washington () or toll-free [email protected] Modified: August 31, Industrialization, Urbanization, and Immigration Business and industrialization centered on the cities.
The ever increasing number of factories created an intense need for labor, convincing people in rural areas to move to the city, and drawing immigrants from Europe to the United States. Apache/ Server at leslutinsduphoenix.com Port