Teaching Intertextuality and Recontextualization through Music Posted by Maya Smith, Graduate Student, French, January 15, Sensing the opportunity to provide a pedagogical model for the use of music in foreign language teaching, I have created activities that uncover and highlight themes of intertextuality, recontextualization, recognizability, and re appropriation through close readings of songs and other cultural texts to which they are linked. My activities are designed to show students how texts shed light on ideological, cultural, and symbolic systems. In order to give instructors access to these teaching materials and to other lesson plans dealing with music, I have created a website for the French department, which language instructors can contribute to and consult.
Phonograph record — The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. The phonograph disc record was the medium used for music reproduction until late in the 20th century.
It had co-existed with the cylinder from the late s. Records retained the largest market share even when new formats such as compact cassette were mass-marketed, by the late s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, and the vinyl record left the mainstream in The phonograph record has made a resurgence in the early 21st century —9.
Likewise, in the UK sales have increased five-fold from toas of ,48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide,18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to heat or broken.
The large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression, in the s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound.
Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in were played back as sound for the first time inalong with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early asthese are the earliest known recordings of sound. InThomas Edison invented the phonograph, unlike the phonautograph, it was capable of both recording and reproducing sound.
Despite the similarity of name, there is no evidence that Edisons phonograph was based on Scotts phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a paper tape, with the idea of creating a telephone repeater analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on.
The tinfoil was wrapped around a metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately, Edison also invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats.
A decade later, Edison developed a greatly improved phonograph that used a wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet. This proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device, the wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century.
Berliners earliest discs, first marketed inbut only in Europe, were It was founded inevolving from an enterprise named the American Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the sound business.
Columbia Records went on to release records by an array of singers, instrumentalists.
It is one of Sony Musics three flagship record labels alongside RCA Records and Epic Records, rather, as above, it was connected to CBS, a broadcasting media company which had purchased the company inand had been co-founded in by Columbia Records itself.
The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in by stenographer, lawyer and New Jersey native Edward Easton and it derived its name from the District of Columbia, where it was headquartered. At first it had a monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington.
As was the custom of some of the regional companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own. Columbias ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in with the North American Phonograph Companys breakup, thereafter it sold only records and phonographs of its own manufacture.
InColumbia introduced the XP record, a brown wax record. According to Gracyk, the molded brown waxes may have sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system inpreceded only by their Toy Graphophone of For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound.
In order to add prestige to its catalog of artists. The firm also introduced the internal-horn Grafonola to compete with the extremely popular Victrola sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company, during this era, Columbia used the famous Magic Notes logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas.
Columbia was split into two companies, one to make records and one to make players, Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, and Ed Easton went with it.
Eventually it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation, in lateColumbia went into receivership 3. Popular music — Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.
These forms and styles can be enjoyed and performed by people with little or no musical training and it stands in contrast to both art music and traditional or folk music. Art music was historically disseminated through the performances of music, although since the beginning of the recording industry.Jan 20, · Like, subscribe, it's free!
Please read the description: I'm starting to have some horn at my fingertips. The song of the week: Armstrong of Nougarot. Complete program for . For example, water is a pure substance, but pure water is difficult to find in nature. Even the clearest spring water contains dissolved minerals.
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