It won't tie into anything else in the world. If you want you local work to align with the world, you need some way to determine direction better than a rough guess. The principal ways of doing this are another known point in the same coordinate system if you are so luckycompass reading if you can stand the low precisionsurvey-grade GPS vector between any two points a reasonable distance apart, and astronomical measurements.
Use this method if you have one point at a site with known coordinates the coordinates may be defined in a simple way. Set up the instrument above this point. To determine the orientation parameter, there are two options: Orientation with a given azimuth In the simplest case, the azimuth to a distant target is known.
Aim to this target and then measure the horizontal angle.
You can now calculate the orientation of the circle of the total station. If you do not need to orientate the instrument to true north, the azimuth to a visible target is often set to zero.
Orientation with given backsight coordinates You may be able to measure from the station point to a second point that has given coordinates. With the given coordinates of both station and backsight point, you can calculate the azimuth and the orientation angle.
Set up a tripod with a prism or a prism rod at the backsight point and then measure both the angle and distance. Use this simple stationing setup routine in local applications when no connection to a grid system is given or necessary. Advantages Simple and fast procedure.
Use it even if no coordinates are known. In this case, you can work with any coordinates for the station and any azimuth for the orientation. It is the best procedure to use when you work with one station only. Disadvantages If you build up a local network, always working with the simple station setup method and using one backsight point only that was measured from a previous station, a loose net configuration is built that has decreasing internal accuracy.
If this station setup is used multiple times in an existing network, the neighborhood relationship of point groups measured from different stations depends strongly on the net quality. But the net quality cannot be checked with this simple setup. There is no redundancy in the measurement.
So you cannot check if: The station point at the site is identical to the point given by the coordinates. The correct backsight point was chosen. The backsight coordinates are correct.
The measured or staked point cloud may have good internal geometry but it might be shifted or twisted. Stationing Setup Plus Use this method if you need to measure more backsight points to determine the orientation: The station coordinates and the coordinates of the backsight points must be known.
You can then calculate the averaged orientation. This method is more suitable than the simple stationing setup when a stationing has to be done in a network that is either given or that is produced by previous measurements. Advantages The main advantage when you compare this method to the simple setup is redundancy.
The orientation parameter and the scale factor can be determined more accurately. A point mix-up, and either wrong or inaccurate coordinates can be recognized.
Network constraints can be detected and taken into account. Disadvantages Compared to the simple station setup, you need to allow more time. However, this is the only real disadvantage. Compared to resection, you are limited to a given point to set up the instrument.
This could lead to problems caused by visibility.
The prerequisites for Resection are similar to those for Station Setup Plus. The only difference is that you can choose the station point, which means that its coordinates are unknown and have to be calculated by the stationing algorithm.
Advantages Because you can choose the station point, you can set up the tripod where there is the best visibility to all points that you need to measure or stake out, or where there is no obstruction or traffic, or where the highest safety for the observer and the instrument is guaranteed.
Disadvantages There are no real disadvantages, but you can use this method only if you have two or more backsight points.
This means that missing backsight points are no longer a disadvantage.
RefLine stationing follows the same principle as Resection, but two backsight points only are used:SURVEY MANUAL STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE FORWARD The purpose of this manual is to outline policies and procedures adopted by the New Hampshire Department of Transportation that will serve as a guide for those performing duties related to survey work for the Department.
Surveyors working for this Department represent the State of New. Leveling the Total Station must be accomplished to sufficient accuracy otherwise NOTE: When the instrument operator changes the reticle focus may need to be adjusted. Measuring the Height of An Object your working coordinate system.
Accounting study guide by john_thomas_lynn includes 33 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. warranty repair work at an average cost of $ per motorcycle.
In the second year of operations, Cave Creek HD performed warranty work on the motorcycles sold in the first year at a total cost of $30, When Cave Creek HD performs. If you are working on a writing assignment, bring all of your materials to work on with your tutor, such as the assignment, pre-writing notes, outlines, rough draft, etc.
You can leave a note for your tutor explaining what you would like to work on when making an appointment online. Apr 06, · Little or no training has been provided on a stations procedure and work instruction content and format requirements or in many cases no content and format requirements exist.
the writing of procedures and work instructions is a critical job, not one intended to be performed as a collateral duty. Notes, Cautions, Warnings. Total Stations A total station is an optical instrument used in modern surveying. It is a combination of an electronic theodolite (transit), an electronic distance measuring device (EDM) and software running on an external computer, such as a laptop or data collector.